...Traditional measures of therapy outcome are neither penetrating enough nor specific enough to individual cases to yield a sufficiently nuanced picture of what has changed or why
The superiority of CBT turned out to be an artifact of including non-bona fide therapies in the comparisons (e.g.supportive counseling). In other words, CBT was not significantly more beneficial than noncognitive and nonbehavioral treatments that were intended to be therapeutic rather than merely serving as a convenient control group for researchers' favored therapy.
…psychoanalysts are still struggling to make their views heard about the importance of personality and intrapsychic change, In particular, changes in personality are complex and hard to operationalize and quantify, Those at the behavioral end of the spectrum, in contrast, care primarily about easily observable changes in symptomatology.
The satisfied CBT clients reported gains in the ability to apply techniques to cope with problems, had taken more control of their lives, and felt their problems were normalized. In contrast the PDT (Psychodynamic Therapy) clients reported understanding themselves more, being more able to set limits and boundaries, and having changed the ways in which they relate to others. Thus, although quantitative measures, as usual, showed few differences between therapies, qualitative analyses showed more theory-predicted results.
... what has been linked with outcome in CBT are “heretic” interventions such as: fostering emotional experiencing and expression, exploiting attachment relationships with early significant others that include the explorations of the therapeutic relationship and defensive maneuvers.